Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Development of Geographic Information System
Development of Geographic Information System CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM A geographic information system helps to create maps, integrate information, visualize scenarios, present powerful ideas and develop effective solutions. GIS can be used in wide areas for the purpose of decision making. This technique used in many areas such as traffic measurement, asset management and weather forecasting. A geographic information system helps to analyze large quantity of data within a single database according to their location. GIS is used for providing information about disaster and will manage huge level of data for vulnerability and hazard management. GIS is well developed and successful tool that is applicable in disaster refinement and forecasting. Weather forecasts cover large regions and weather status may change every minute during the natural disaster. Weather forecasting, disaster management and warning are also major service provided by GIS. GPS is integration of software and hardware components that used in mobile phones for tracking the location. GPS is an very robust and easy to handle. GPS is an real time positioning information that provides highly accurate geographic reference in dependent of time and weather. Spatial database stores a huge amount of space-related information such as maps, medical imaging data, pre-processed remote sensing data, and VLSI chip layout data. Geospatial data is the data that relates to the geographic location of features that mainly required for GIS. Spatial data that show where the feature is there and attribute data provide information about the feature .The amount of Geospatial data will be collected in disaster refinement and forecast system is also increasing exponentially. The complexity of spatial database isthat it is not possible to analyze and collect data completely. 1.2 GEOGRAPHIC MAPS Two dimensional graphic representation of earth surface. The sizes of geographic objects on a map smaller than size in reality. Google map isa free web mapping and location basedservice. Google service provider providesa free web APIfor using the Google map web interface. Interactive web mapping services and resource management services have been introduced as an extension to a conventional GIS system. Integration of web mapping service and geographic resource has recently attracted more attention. The service providers manage and maintain all the services by API. Google API services are free at present. But some API services have only limited usage. People want the services for usage have to register their own details and purpose of usage. The registered users are permitted to add labels on a web page to request the service providers and access their service to gather the resource of Geo-information. When the developer request exceeds for some resources, the application is blocked b y service providers and it is put in waiting to be confirmed. Finally, it will be approved. People (developers) are interested to use Google map in their application have to apply for a Google map key. After applying the Google map key then developers can use or insert Google map to their own application. Google map provides control and options to use mapping service as per userÃ¢â¬â¢s request. Google map service provider, have some policies that have to be satisfied by the developer as per the need of the application. The developers should provide the purpose of map usage in their application and their professional details for avoiding illegal usage of the map. GEOMETRIC PROBLEM Computational Geometry is one that describes the studies of data structure and algorithm for Geometric problems. Geometric Algorithm used to solve Geometric Problems such as Range Searching, Point Location. Nearest Neighbor and Ray Tracing. Spatial data mining denotes the spatial relationships, extraction of knowledge, or other interesting patterns that are not clearly stored in spatial data sets. Spatial data are mainly required for GIS whose information is related to geographic locations. The amount of spatial data that can be collected in such systems is also increasing exponentially. The complexity of the data found in these databases means that it is not possible for humans completely to analyze the data being collected. Spatial database is one of large database that manage multidimensional objects such as lines, points etc. Spatial partitioning is a step to define, generate and represent partitioned data. Spatial Data is partitioned based on spatial attribute. Spatial data is partitioned as tree and recursive subdivision of space. KD tree algorithm is used for spatial partitioning. The purpose is to hierarchically decompose space into small number of cells, such that no two cells contain too many objects. Fast way to access any input object is by its position. Algorithm construct kd tree by partitioning point set recursively along different dimensions. Space partitioning is the process of dividing a space into two or more disjoint subsets. Space- partitioning means that divide large regions into several small regions. Then the partitioning technique applied to small regions recursively. These regions are organized into a tree called as spatial-partitioning tree. Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects, that objects will be similar means they are in the same group or otherwise in different group. To build a hierarchy of clusters called hierarchical cluster analysis. Nearest Neighbor technique is simple and efficient that based on the structure of data. Various techniques available for solving the nearest neighbor problems. K-Nearest Neighbor is simple and fast technique deals with large data samples that use the nearest neighbor rule. Ball Tree K-Nearest Neighbor deal with high dimensional data to improve speed to find K-Nearest Neighbor to perform Geometric learning tasks. Quad tree is partition the space into two dimensions that means root node partitioned exactly into four children. Octree is data structure that partition space into three dimension space such as recursively subdivides space into eight octants. R Tree is one of spatial indexing technique that indexing multi dimensional information such as geo graphical coordinates that store geometric objects and also used for spatial access methods. R+ Tree differ from R Tree that avoids overlapping of coordinates. R* Tree is robust and efficient technique used to structure geometric objects. 1.4 WETHER FORECASTING Weather conditions have increased the demand for decision support systems to include true forecasts. Weather forecasts cover large regions and weather status may change every few minutes the effectiveness in human life to know what will happen for unpredictable situations and events. weather forecasting and warning are also major service provided by GIS. The emergence of smart phones has led to the proliferation of a variety of innovative data-driven mobile applications. One useful application is location based mobile weather forecasting which provides minute-to-minute forecasts. After around to staring at temperatures, reading reviews, and watching weather alerts roll in, that this Weather offers the most straightforward approach to presenting weather data on an Android Smartphone. Though it sounds complicated, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about how much weather you want and how often, which is pretty easy to figure out. No two people experience and appreciate weather the same way, and most Andr oid device owners have different styles of customizing their phones. So picking just one Android weather app for everyone just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to fly. weather forecast and disaster refinement forecast is assessed which involves weather related data such as temperature, air pressure, rainfall, solar radiation,relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure, ground level pressure and their location related latitude and longitude. A major part of cyclone disaster refinement and weather forecasting are the severe weather alerts and advisories to people that severe or hazardous weather is expected. 1.5 CYCLONE DISASTER Natural disastersmakeextreme weather changes in earth surface that givelotsof losses and damages to valuable goods, buildings, andthat result in death or injury to humans. Cyclone is one of natural disaster that makes the area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the earth. Cyclonic circulations mostly appear in an large scale that are centered on low atmospheric pressured areas. Cyclone disaster may cause severe weather events and problems that create wind speed more than 200 km/hour and sea waves as high as a few metres. Cyclone disaster makes severe weather changes that damage property and disturb the daily lives. The main objective of cyclone disaster refinement and forecast system is to monitor the changes and refine the complicated disaster occurrence as accurately as possible. Cyclone disaster refinement and forecast system have two aspects: Monitoring the situation and recording the real weather changes and any chance for the disaster such as a cyclone.Other is occurrence prediction ofcycloneand causesof cyclone disaster. In this system, we are going to find out any possibilities of cyclone and due to any weather changes by real-time Geospatial data collection. In this system, API services for collecting live data from service providers such as Google, yahoo are used. The resource integration may use own API for integration of useful resources. Service providers observe every Geospatialchangethrough satellite and gather weather data. To prevent the damages to forecasting the upcoming disaster related updates frequently. 1.6 FUZZY LOGIC BASED MODEL Fuzzy Logic can mimics a person would make decisions about anything such as forecasting. Both expert knowledge and past data can be used to develop the forecasting system. Fuzzy Logic provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon imprecise, noisy or missing input information. It has an ability to explain the results and it can be coupled with other technologies such as neural networks to develop powerful systems. Fuzzy results depend on the initial data or the knowledge. The fuzzy concept means set their range or values that can vary according to the conditions, instead of being fixed once and for all. Actually the fuzzy has semantics, but they defined as per the specification, including a definition of the conditions in which they are operationalized. The reasoning of fuzzy logic have only two values that as true and false values which may incomplete or ambiguous, Fuzzy logic able to process this situation and to provide approximate solution. To design this fuzzy system, that define the rule that satisfied the rule that equals the range means that specified as input and output data. They collect data to make dataset based on their existing one to form the range that will make some rules. The fuzzy inference system can be described in the five steps: Fuzzifying Input Applying Fuzzy Operators Applying the Implication Process Aggregating All Outputs Defuzzifying The aim of the work, is collecting geospatialdata and integrating the geographic resource and then passed to the algorithm of nearest neighbor change in cities are found and the climate will visualize it on Android Smartphone via Google map. The Google map is input to the system. This work is organized as follows. Section 2 gives the review of previous work onthe weather data collection, Algorithm for findingnearest neighbors, Natural disaster rating and forecasting. Section 3 describes the problem statement of the existing work. Section 4 and 5 elaborates proposed methods and analysis and the discussion about testing our work is noted in Section 6. Section 7 presents implementations and conclusions of the work is noted in section 8.